Alzheimer’s disease, Epidemiology, causes, diagnosis and novel treatments: A review.

Najeeb Ullah, Noor Muhammad khan, Wasi Ullah


This review reveals current innovations in pathology, diagnosis and novel treatment options for Alzheimer‟s disease. Alzheimer‟s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder named after Alois Alzheimer, who first described this disorder more than one century ago. It is the most common cause of dementia, accounting for up to 75% of all dementia cases. There are two major pathological hallmarks of the AD, extracellular plaques containing various forms of amyloid-β protein (Aβ), and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), composed of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein. Mutations and polymorphisms in multiple genes (Presenilin 1, presenilin 2 genes and Apo lipoprotein E) contribute to familial and sporadic forms of AD. There is no accurate diagnostic method; the only method of definitively diagnosing AD is a brain autopsy. However, medical history, neuropsychological testing, and neuroimaging techniques allow physicians to make an accurate diagnosis of AD. Apart from traditional therapies (antioxidants, Acetyl cholinesterase inhibitors, and NMDA receptor antagonists) this review also exposes modern treatments options for AD (immunotherapy, cell transplantation and gene therapy).

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International Journal of Basic Medical Sciences and Pharmacy (IJBMSP): ISSN: 2049-4963